Sex dating in stroud alabama

Posted by / 01-Jan-2018 04:08

We have three lines of evidence that have been used to reconstruct the evolution of subsistence over this vast time period.They are the interpretation of morphology by analogy with living primates and other mammals, the material artefactual remains and, more recently, direct chemical analysis of the hominid remains themselves.Through careful study of bone taphonomy (Lyman, 1994) and natural bone deposition processes (ie by carnivores) it is possible to identify human-modified animal bone that is the result of purposeful butchering and hunting in the past.Animal and plant remains are indirect measures of past diets, and may relate to single events, such as a special feast, but we cannot know how representative of everyday diets they are.What, however, is the evidence of human diet and nutrition, and human health, before the adoption of agriculture?Archaeologists often see the reconstruction of past human subsistence as vital to our understanding of past societies, and therefore have produced a large body of literature concerning past subsistence practices.

Earlier hominid bone remains are rare, but when found provide a wealth of information on past diets, particularly through analogy with modern primates (eg mandible size).Within the Homo line we see a decrease in mandible size and an increase in cranial capacity through time.These trends continue into the more recent past and, focussing on Europe specifically, we find Neanderthals (called either Homo sapiens neanderthalensis or Homo neanderthalensis) between about 200 000 and 30 000 years ago with the largest cranial capacities of any hominid species (Mellars, 1996).Modern humans, Homo sapiens sapiens, first appear approximately 100 000 years ago in Africa, and we do not have evidence for modern humans in Europe until about 40 000 years ago (Gamble, 1999).What is the evidence of subsistence changes through these four million years of hominid evolution?

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Osteoarchaeologists look for evidence of nutritional health as manifested in the skeleton, and look for pathologies that indicate nutritional stress (Larsen, 1997).

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